Hadoop集群之Hive安装配置

Hive是基于Hadoop构建的一套数据仓库分析系统,它提供了丰富的SQL查询方式来分析存储在Hadoop 分布式文件系统中的数据。其在Hadoop的架构体系中承担了一个SQL解析的过程,它提供了对外的入口来获取用户的指令然后对指令进行分析,解析出一个MapReduce程序组成可执行计划,并按照该计划生成对应的MapReduce任务提交给Hadoop集群处理,获取最终的结果。元数据——如表模式——存储在名为metastore的数据库中。

系统环境

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192.168.186.128 hadoop-master
192.168.186.129 hadoop-slave
MySQL安装在master机器上,hive服务器也安装在master上

Hive下载

下载源码包,最新版本可自行去官网下载

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[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]$ wget http://mirrors.cnnic.cn/apache/hive/hive-1.2.1/apache-hive-1.2.1-bin.tar.gz
[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]$ tar -zxf apache-hive-1.2.1-bin.tar.gz
[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]$ ls
apache-hive-1.2.1-bin apache-hive-1.2.1-bin.tar.gz dfs hadoop-2.7.1 Hsource tmp

配置环境变量

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[root@hadoop-master hadoop]# vi /etc/profile
HIVE_HOME=/home/hadoop/apache-hive-1.2.1-bin
PATH=$PATH:$HIVE_HOME/bin
export HIVE_NAME PATH
[root@hadoop-master hadoop]# source /etc/profile

Metastore

metastore是Hive元数据集中存放地。它包括两部分:服务和后台数据存储。有三种方式配置metastore:内嵌metastore、本地metastore以及远程metastore。
本次搭建中采用MySQL作为远程仓库,部署在hadoop-master节点上,hive服务端也安装在hive-master上,hive客户端即hadoop-slave访问hive服务器。

MySQL安装

安装依赖包
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# yum install gcc gcc-c++ ncurses-devel  -y
安装cmake
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# wget http://www.cmake.org/files/v2.8/cmake-2.8.12.tar.gz
# tar zxvf cmake-2.8.12.tar.gz
# cd cmake-2.8.12
# ./bootstrap
# make && make install
创建用户的相应目录
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# groupadd mysql
# useradd -g mysql mysql
# mkdir -p /data/mysql/
# mkdir -p /data/mysql/data/
# mkdir -p /data/mysql/log/
获取MySQL安装包并安装
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# wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/downloads/mysql/mysql-5.6.25.tar.gz
# tar zxvf mysql-5.6.25.tar.gz
# cd mysql-5.6.25
# cmake \
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/data/mysql \
-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/data/mysql/mysql.sock \
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 \
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/data/mysql/data \
-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306 \
-DENABLE_DOWNLOADS=1
如果报错找不到CMakeCache.txt则说明没安装ncurses-devel


# make && make install
修改目录权限
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# chmod +w /data/mysql/
# chown -R mysql:mysql /data/mysql/
# ln -s /data/mysql/lib/libmysqlclient.so.18 /usr/lib/libmysqlclient.so.18
# ln -s /data/mysql/mysql.sock /tmp/mysql.sock
初始化数据库
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# cp /data/mysql/support-files/my-default.cnf /etc/my.cnf
# cp /data/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
# /data/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf --basedir=/data/mysql --datadir=/data/mysql/data
启动MySQL服务
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# chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysqld
# service mysqld start
#ln –s /data/mysql/bin/mysql /usr/bin/
初始化密码
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#mysql -uroot  -h127.0.0.1 -p
mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('123456');

创建Hive用户

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mysql>CREATE USER 'hive' IDENTIFIED BY 'hive';
mysql>GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'hive'@'hadoop-master' WITH GRANT OPTION;
mysql>flush privileges;

Hive用户登录

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[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]mysql -h hadoop-master -uhive
mysql>set password = password('hive');

创建Hive数据库

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mysql>create database hive;

配置Hive

修改配置文件

进入到hive的配置文件目录下,找到hive-default.xml.template,cp份为hive-default.xml
另创建hive-site.xml并添加参数

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[hadoop@hadoop-master conf]$ pwd
/home/hadoop/apache-hive-1.2.1-bin/conf
[hadoop@hadoop-master conf]$ vi hive-site.xml
<configuration>
<property>
<name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL</name>
<value>jdbc:mysql://hadoop-master:3306/hive?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true</value>
<description>JDBC connect string for a JDBC metastore</description>
</property>
<property>
<name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionDriverName</name>
<value>com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</value>
<description>Driver class name for a JDBC metastore</description>
</property>

<property>
<name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionUserName</name>
<value>hive<value>
<description>username to use against metastore database</description>
</property>
<property>
<name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionPassword</name>
<value>hive</value>
<description>password to use against metastore database</description>
</property>
</configuration>

JDBC下载

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[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]$ wget http://cdn.mysql.com/Downloads/Connector-J/mysql-connector-java-5.1.36.tar.gz
[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]$ ls
apache-hive-1.2.1-bin dfs hadoop-2.7.1 Hsource tmp
[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]$ cp mysql-connector-java-5.1.33-bin.jar apache-hive-1.2.1-bin/lib/

Hive客户端配置

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[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]$ scp -r apache-hive-1.2.1-bin/ hadoop@hadoop-slave:/home/hadoop
[hadoop@hadoop-slave conf]$ vi hive-site.xml
<configuration>
<property>
<name>hive.metastore.uris</name>
<value>thrift://hadoop-master:9083</value>
</property>
</configuration>

Hive启动

要启动metastore服务

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[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]$ hive --service metastore &
[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]$ jps
10288 RunJar #多了一个进程
9365 NameNode
9670 SecondaryNameNode
11096 Jps
9944 NodeManager
9838 ResourceManager
9471 DataNode

Hive服务器端访问

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[hadoop@hadoop-master ~]$ hive
Logging initialized using configuration in jar:file:/home/hadoop/apache-hive-1.2.1-bin/lib/hive-common-1.2.1.jar!/hive-log4j.properties
hive> show databases;
OK
default
src
Time taken: 1.332 seconds, Fetched: 2 row(s)
hive> use src;
OK
Time taken: 0.037 seconds
hive> create table test1(id int);
OK
Time taken: 0.572 seconds
hive> show tables;
OK
abc
test
test1
Time taken: 0.057 seconds, Fetched: 3 row(s)
hive>

Hive客户端访问

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[hadoop@hadoop-slave conf]$ hive
Logging initialized using configuration in jar:file:/home/hadoop/apache-hive-1.2.1-bin/lib/hive-common-1.2.1.jar!/hive-log4j.properties
hive> show databases;
OK
default
src
Time taken: 1.022 seconds, Fetched: 2 row(s)
hive> use src;
OK
Time taken: 0.057 seconds
hive> show tables;
OK
abc
test
test1
Time taken: 0.218 seconds, Fetched: 3 row(s)
hive> create table test2(id int ,name string);
OK
Time taken: 5.518 seconds
hive> show tables;
OK
abc
test
test1
test2
Time taken: 0.102 seconds, Fetched: 4 row(s)
hive>

好了,测试完毕,已经安装成功了。

安装问题纠错

Hive数据库编码问题

错误描述:hive进入后可以创建数据库,但是无法创建表

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hive>create table table_test(id string,name string);
FAILED: Execution Error, return code 1 from org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.exec.DDLTask.MetaException(message:javax.jdo.JDODataStoreException: An exception was thrown while adding/validating class(es) : Specified key was too long; max key length is 767 bytes

解决办法:登录mysql修改下hive数据库的编码方式

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mysql>alter database hive character set latin1;

防火墙问题

Hive服务器开启了iptables服务,hive本机可以访问hive服务,hive的客户端hadoop-slave访问报错

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[hadoop@hadoop-slave conf]$ hive
Logging initialized using configuration in jar:file:/home/hadoop/apache-hive-1.2.1-bin/lib/hive-common-1.2.1.jar!/hive-log4j.properties
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.RuntimeException: java.lang.RuntimeException: Unable to instantiate org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.SessionHiveMetaStoreClient
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.start(SessionState.java:522)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.cli.CliDriver.run(CliDriver.java:677)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.cli.CliDriver.main(CliDriver.java:621)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:62)
at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:483)
at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.run(RunJar.java:221)
at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.main(RunJar.java:136)
Caused by: java.lang.RuntimeException: Unable to instantiate org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.SessionHiveMetaStoreClient
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.MetaStoreUtils.newInstance(MetaStoreUtils.java:1523)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.RetryingMetaStoreClient.<init>(RetryingMetaStoreClient.java:86)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.RetryingMetaStoreClient.getProxy(RetryingMetaStoreClient.java:132)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.RetryingMetaStoreClient.getProxy(RetryingMetaStoreClient.java:104)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.createMetaStoreClient(Hive.java:3005)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.getMSC(Hive.java:3024)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.start(SessionState.java:503)
... 8 more
Caused by: java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException
at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method)
at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.java:62)
at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.java:45)
at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:408)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.MetaStoreUtils.newInstance(MetaStoreUtils.java:1521)
... 14 more
Caused by: MetaException(message:Could not connect to meta store using any of the URIs provided. Most recent failure: org.apache.thrift.transport.TTransportException: java.net.NoRouteToHostException: No route to host
at org.apache.thrift.transport.TSocket.open(TSocket.java:187)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.HiveMetaStoreClient.open(HiveMetaStoreClient.java:420)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.HiveMetaStoreClient.<init>(HiveMetaStoreClient.java:236)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.SessionHiveMetaStoreClient.<init>(SessionHiveMetaStoreClient.java:74)
at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method)
at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.java:62)
at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.java:45)
at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:408)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.MetaStoreUtils.newInstance(MetaStoreUtils.java:1521)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.RetryingMetaStoreClient.<init>(RetryingMetaStoreClient.java:86)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.RetryingMetaStoreClient.getProxy(RetryingMetaStoreClient.java:132)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.RetryingMetaStoreClient.getProxy(RetryingMetaStoreClient.java:104)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.createMetaStoreClient(Hive.java:3005)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.getMSC(Hive.java:3024)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.start(SessionState.java:503)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.cli.CliDriver.run(CliDriver.java:677)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.cli.CliDriver.main(CliDriver.java:621)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:62)
at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:483)
at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.run(RunJar.java:221)
at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.main(RunJar.java:136)
Caused by: java.net.NoRouteToHostException: No route to host
at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.socketConnect(Native Method)
at java.net.AbstractPlainSocketImpl.doConnect(AbstractPlainSocketImpl.java:345)
at java.net.AbstractPlainSocketImpl.connectToAddress(AbstractPlainSocketImpl.java:206)
at java.net.AbstractPlainSocketImpl.connect(AbstractPlainSocketImpl.java:188)
at java.net.SocksSocketImpl.connect(SocksSocketImpl.java:392)
at java.net.Socket.connect(Socket.java:589)
at org.apache.thrift.transport.TSocket.open(TSocket.java:182)
... 22 more
)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.HiveMetaStoreClient.open(HiveMetaStoreClient.java:466)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.metastore.HiveMetaStoreClient.<init>(HiveMetaStoreClient.java:236)
at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.SessionHiveMetaStoreClient.<init>(SessionHiveMetaStoreClient.java:74)
... 19 more

解决办法:比较粗暴直接关掉了防火墙

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[root@hadoop-master hadoop]# service iptables stop
iptables: Flushing firewall rules: [ OK ]
iptables: Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter [ OK ]
iptables: Unloading modules: [ OK ]
[root@hadoop-master hadoop]#

参考资料